Yemen, a country in the Arabian Peninsula, is currently embroiled in a civil war that has had a profound impact on various aspects of life, including media and internet freedom. The situation is complex, with multiple factions vying for control, including the Yemeni government, Houthi rebels, and forces backed by Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Amid this turmoil, the state of internet freedom and privacy in Yemen has deteriorated, with the warring factions employing various tactics to suppress dissent and monitor citizens.

Freedom of Expression and Censorship

Freedom of expression in Yemen has been under significant strain due to the ongoing conflict. Both the Yemeni government and Houthi rebels have exerted considerable control over the media landscape. The Press and Publications Law, which was last amended in 2009, contains vague provisions that have been used to prosecute journalists and social media users for “spreading false news” or “defaming” public figures. In 2015, Houthi rebels took over several media outlets and imposed stringent censorship, including blocking websites that were critical of their rule. Journalists face harassment, kidnapping, and even death, making Yemen one of the most dangerous countries for media workers.

Government Surveillance

The Yemeni government has reportedly used surveillance technologies to monitor opposition figures and journalists. In 2016, Citizen Lab revealed that the government was using FinFisher spyware to infect computers and capture keystrokes, passwords, and other sensitive information. Meanwhile, Houthi rebels have been accused of tapping into telecommunication networks to spy on conversations and collect information, raising grave concerns for the privacy of individuals. These surveillance efforts are often shrouded in secrecy, with no clear legal framework governing their implementation, thus putting citizens at risk of arbitrary monitoring.

Social Media Access and Data Retention

In Yemen, social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube are generally accessible but are closely monitored. Authorities have been known to arrest individuals based on their social media activities, particularly posts that are critical of the government or the ongoing war. Both sides in the conflict have also been reported to employ bots and fake accounts to spread propaganda, further muddying the online discourse. While there is no specific data retention law in Yemen, given the state of surveillance, it is reasonable to assume that user data could be captured and stored for indefinite periods.

Impact on Privacy and Security

The ongoing conflict and associated surveillance activities have had a severe impact on the privacy and security of Yemeni citizens. The lack of a robust legal framework for data protection leaves individuals vulnerable to unlawful data collection and breaches. Furthermore, the use of spyware and other surveillance technologies without oversight undermines the confidentiality of personal communications and poses a threat to personal security.


The state of internet freedom, surveillance, and privacy in Yemen is deeply concerning, exacerbated by the ongoing conflict and lack of legal protections. As the war continues, the struggle for control extends into the digital realm, putting the privacy and security of Yemeni citizens at great risk. While international attention is primarily focused on the humanitarian crisis, the issues surrounding internet freedom and privacy should not be overlooked, as they have long-term implications for the democratic future of the country.

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