Hungary stands as an “Average” choice on the PPI scale for hosting VPN servers. The country’s data retention laws require Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to store subscriber data for up to one year, which can be accessed by law enforcement agencies with a court order. However, this law doesn’t apply to VPN providers who are not considered ISPs. On the positive side, Hungary has relatively lenient copyright laws and doesn’t have a history of strict enforcement, which makes it more suitable for P2P file sharing and streaming activities. Furthermore, Hungary has not been involved in any notable surveillance scandals, and its privacy laws are considered moderate compared to other countries.
Freedom of Expression and Censorship
Freedom of speech and censorship in Hungary have been subjects of considerable debate due to the country’s legislative measures in recent years. While the Hungarian constitution guarantees freedom of expression, several laws have been enacted that seemingly contradict these principles. For instance, the 2018 “Stop Soros” package of laws criminalized assistance to undocumented migrants and imposed restrictions on NGOs engaged in migration-related activities. Critics argue that these laws not only curtail the freedom of expression and assembly but also limit the ability of civil society organizations to advocate for human rights.
In addition, the introduction of the 2020 COVID-19 Protection Act heightened concerns about censorship in Hungary. The law granted the government extended powers, including the ability to punish the spreading of “false” or “distorted” information related to the pandemic. This provision raised fears that the government could use the law to suppress dissent and control the narrative surrounding the crisis. While the Hungarian government claimed that the measures were necessary for public safety, critics argue that it provided a legal framework for the suppression of free speech and the stifling of critical voices. These events highlight the stark contrast between the constitutional guarantee of freedom of speech in Hungary and the practical implications of the implemented laws, which have drawn criticism for their potential impact on democratic principles.
P2P, Torrents, Streaming
P2P, torrenting, and streaming activities in Hungary have faced legal and regulatory challenges, which have sparked debates on issues such as copyright infringement and online piracy. Hungarian copyright law, in line with the EU Copyright Directive, provides protections for intellectual property rights. However, enforcement of these laws has been a subject of criticism due to their perceived impact on personal freedoms and the free flow of information.
In 2014, Hungary implemented the European Union Intellectual Property Rights Enforcement Directive (IPRED), which aimed to combat online piracy and copyright infringement. This directive allowed copyright holders to request ISPs to block access to websites hosting infringing content. While this measure intended to protect intellectual property rights, it raised concerns among internet freedom advocates who argued that it could lead to overblocking and limit access to legitimate content.
Furthermore, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) takedown process has had implications for P2P, torrenting, and streaming platforms in Hungary. Platforms that facilitate or enable copyright infringement are subject to takedown notices and potential legal consequences. This has resulted in some websites and services being blocked or facing legal actions. Critics argue that these measures, while aimed at protecting copyright holders, can hinder innovation, restrict access to information, and stifle digital culture. The tension between copyright enforcement and the preservation of online freedoms continues to be a prominent issue in Hungary’s digital landscape.
Government Surveillance and Data Retention Laws
Government surveillance and data retention laws in Hungary have raised significant concerns regarding privacy and civil liberties. The country has implemented legislation that grants broad surveillance powers to the government, allowing for the collection and monitoring of citizens’ communications and online activities. These laws, such as the 2011 Electronic Communications Act and the 2019 National Security Law, provide authorities with extensive surveillance capabilities without adequate safeguards and oversight.
The retention of citizens’ data is another alarming aspect. Hungary has implemented data retention laws that require telecommunication service providers to store users’ metadata, including information about phone calls, emails, and internet usage, for an extended period. Critics argue that these laws grant the government access to sensitive personal information without a clear justification or proper judicial oversight, posing a threat to privacy and potentially enabling abuse of power.
Such surveillance measures and data retention laws have a chilling effect on freedom of expression and violate individuals’ right to privacy. They create an environment of constant monitoring and self-censorship, as individuals may fear that their communications and online activities are being scrutinized by the government. These laws lack transparency and accountability, which undermines the principles of a democratic society and erodes the trust between citizens and their government. It is crucial to advocate for stronger privacy protections and safeguards against excessive government surveillance in order to uphold individual freedoms and preserve a healthy democratic society.
Hungary, as a member of the European Union, is subject to the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which has greatly enhanced digital privacy since its enforcement in 2018. The GDPR mandates strict requirements on the handling and processing of personal data by organizations, and gives individuals more control over their personal data. This includes the right to access, rectify, and erase their data.
Within Hungary, the National Authority for Data Protection and Freedom of Information (NAIH) oversees the implementation of the GDPR and ensures data protection within the country. The NAIH has the power to conduct investigations and audits, and to impose fines for non-compliance. It also provides guidance and education to individuals and organizations about their rights and obligations under the GDPR. In recent years, the NAIH has issued several fines against companies for data breaches and non-compliance, showing its commitment to enforcing data protection laws. These measures highlight the concerted efforts by the Hungarian government and the EU to enhance and protect digital privacy.
Considering Hungary’s average PPI rating, it may not be the ideal location for users who prioritize absolute privacy and security in their VPN server location. A better alternative in the nearby region would be Romania, which ranks as “Above Average” on the PPI scale. Romania has more robust privacy protections, no mandatory data retention laws for ISPs, and a history of resisting EU data retention directives. Additionally, Romania is known for its more relaxed approach to copyright enforcement, making it a safer choice for P2P file sharing and streaming activities. The geographical proximity of Romania to Hungary also ensures that latency remains relatively low for users in the region.
VPN servers in Hungary: