Category: Learn

  • Router Redistribution: Connecting Networks with Different Routing Protocols

    Router redistribution is a process used in enterprise networking where routing information from one routing protocol is shared or “redistributed” into another routing protocol. This is commonly used in complex network environments where different parts of the network use different routing protocols, and there needs to be a way for these different parts to communicate…

  • Venn Diagrams and Set Operations

    Venn diagrams are visual representations used to show the relationships between different sets. These diagrams are invaluable tools for understanding complex interactions, especially in cybersecurity where understanding relationships between network domains is crucial. In this guide, we’ll cover key set operations like Union, Intersection, Absolute Complement, Relative Complement, and Symmetric Difference. We’ll also talk about…

  • Operations Involving Relations

    Operations Involving Relations: A Junior Cyberanalysis Learning Guide What are Relations? In its simplest form, a relation is a connection between elements in different sets or within the same set. Think of it like a friendship network on social media. Each person (element) is connected (related) to friends (other elements) in some way. In the…

  • Operations Associated with Functions

    1.7 Operations Associated with Functions In the world of functions, there are three major properties you’ll often hear about: One-to-One (Injection) Onto (Surjection) Imagine a school bus picking up students and dropping them at various classes. An ‘onto’ function is like making sure every classroom receives at least one student. That is, every output value…

  • Basics of Counting

    In the field of discrete structures, counting serves as a fundamental concept that underpins various areas of study, including computer science, cryptography, and network design. Utilizing principles such as the Fundamental Counting Principle, permutations, combinations, and the Pigeonhole Principle, counting in discrete structures provides essential tools for calculating possibilities, assessing risks, and solving complex problems.…

  • DNS Leaks

    DNS Leaks

    What is a DNS Leak? In the context of a Virtual Private Network (VPN), a DNS Leak occurs when DNS queries inadvertently bypass the secure VPN tunnel and are resolved by your Internet Service Provider’s (ISP) DNS servers. This is problematic because it exposes the websites you’re visiting, thereby undermining the very privacy and anonymity…

  • Universal Sets

    A universal set is a set that contains all the elements under consideration for a particular discussion or problem. In other words, it’s the “big set” that holds all the possible items relevant to your situation. Any other set discussed is a subset of this universal set. Think of a universal set as the total…

  • Set

    A “set” is a collection of distinct items that share a common property. These items are known as “elements” or “members” of the set. In mathematical notation, sets are usually indicated by capital letters, and their elements are enclosed in curly brackets. Mathematical Notation: Example with Numbers: A = {1, 2, 3} Here, A is…

  • Proper Subset

    In the study of discrete structures, understanding the concept of proper subsets is critical for forming relationships between different sets of elements, such as in computer network design, database organization, and problem-solving in programming. A “proper subset” is a special kind of subset. In a proper subset, every element in set A is also found…

  • Python Logic

    AND Operator def can_have_dessert(ate_meat, ate_vegetables): if ate_meat and ate_vegetables: return “You can have dessert!” else: return “You can’t have dessert because you didn’t eat your meat and vegetables.” # Test the function print(can_have_dessert(True, True)) # Outputs: You can have dessert! print(can_have_dessert(True, False)) # Outputs: You can’t have dessert because you didn’t eat your meat and…