Finland, with an “Above Average” rating on the Privacy Protection Index (PPI), presents a compelling location for a VPN server. The country adheres to the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), enforcing rigorous privacy rules. While Finland does have data retention laws, its commitment to internet freedom and privacy protections is significant. It doesn’t participate in any major intelligence-sharing alliances, reducing surveillance concerns. Its Northern European location promises lower latency and quicker connections for users across Europe. Thus, Finland’s PPI rating indicates a favorable balance of privacy protections and potential risks, making it suitable for hosting a VPN server.
Freedom of Expression and Censorship
Freedom of expression in Finland, a right protected by both the Finnish Constitution and the European Convention on Human Rights, has been subjected to various challenges and controversies in the realm of technology and digital communication. While freedom of expression is generally upheld, there are restrictions to curb hate speech, child pornography, and incitement to violence. A controversial moment in the nation’s history was in 2006, when the Finnish government created a secret blacklist of websites to be blocked by Internet Service Providers (ISPs). However, this move was later deemed illegal by the Supreme Administrative Court, asserting that it infringed upon the right to freedom of expression.
Historical events and legal cases have significantly shaped Finland’s perspective on freedom of expression, censorship, and website blocking. In 1995, the Finnish government passed a law under the Copyright Act of 1961, making it illegal to publish information about copy protection schemes, which was later contested in court and ruled as a violation of freedom of expression. Furthermore, the case of Finnish activist Matti Nikki in 2008 brought to light the issue of website blocking as a form of censorship. Nikki’s arrest for publishing a list of blocked websites sparked critical debate on the boundaries of freedom of expression. More recently, in 2017, the government’s decision to block websites containing terrorist content raised further questions about online censorship, drawing criticism from human rights groups. The Finnish government thus walks a tightrope, balancing its responsibility to protect citizens from harmful content with the right to freedom of expression. The necessity and proportionality of these restrictions continue to be a matter of discussion, with concerns that they could potentially stifle free speech.
P2P, Torrenting, Streaming
Peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing, torrenting, and media streaming are generally accessible in Finland, but the country maintains firm laws against copyright infringement. Under the Finnish Copyright Act, distributing copyrighted material without the owner’s consent is prohibited. This extends to sharing files via P2P networks or torrents if the material is copyrighted.
A landmark case in Finland’s history of P2P and torrenting involved the Finnish BitTorrent tracker Finreactor. In 2006, 22 people, including some minors, who were operators or administrators of Finreactor, were convicted of internet piracy. The court in Turku ruled they had intentionally created the service to violate copyright law, rejecting the defendants’ claim that they were not responsible for the infringement since the content was transferred directly between users. These individuals were fined and ordered to pay over €420,000 in damages for copyright offences, approximately €19,000 each. During the operation of the service from August to December 2004, it was estimated that 10,000 users had accessed the network, sharing through the service 29,625 terabytes of data, equivalent to 450,000 CD-ROMs of data.
As for media streaming, Finland provides access to a range of local and international platforms like Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, Disney+, Yle Areena, and Ruutu. However, streaming copyrighted content without proper licenses through these services is against Finnish law.
Government Surveillance and Data Retention Laws
In Finland, the Electronic Communications Act (2003) mandates that telecommunications companies store certain types of customer data for a duration of six months. This information includes the customer’s name, address, phone number, IP address, call logs, and browsing history. Further, the Security Intelligence Act (2012) empowers the Finnish Security Intelligence Service (SUPO) to gather and retain data about individuals suspected of terrorism or other severe crimes, which can encompass phone calls, emails, and internet activity.
Several instances of government surveillance in Finland have sparked public outcry. In 2006, it was exposed that SUPO had been tracking the communications of journalists and political activists, leading to public outrage and resulting in reform of surveillance practices. Another scandal erupted in 2013 when it was revealed that the Finnish government had been collaborating with the US National Security Agency (NSA) in its surveillance programs. This led to further public backlash, compelling the government to issue an apology. These practices, coupled with Finland’s long-standing data retention laws, have raised serious concerns about privacy rights in the country.
In 2019, the Finnish Parliament passed a new law restricting the volume of data that telecommunications companies are required to store. Despite this, the government retains the power to collect and store data about individuals suspected of serious crimes, including terrorism. As technology continues to evolve, the balance between government surveillance powers and the right to privacy remains a critical issue in Finland’s ongoing debate.
The Finnish government has taken noteworthy strides to enhance digital privacy and the rights of its citizens. Key among these are the Digital Security Act (2019), which restricts the data telecommunications companies are required to store and necessitates a warrant for the government to collect data about individuals suspected of serious crimes. The Personal Data Act (2018) empowers individuals with more control over their personal data, requiring companies to seek consent before collecting or using personal data and granting individuals the right to access, correct, and delete their personal data. The Cybersecurity Act (2019) mandates companies to fortify their computer systems against cyberattacks and establishes a new government agency, the Cybersecurity Centre, to coordinate the government’s response to cyberattacks.
Alongside these laws, the Freedom of Information Act (1999) allows individuals to access government documents and requires the government to disclose information about its activities. Beyond legislation, the Finnish government has initiated public awareness campaigns about digital privacy and collaborated with businesses to cultivate privacy-friendly practices. These concerted efforts underline the Finnish government’s commitment to safeguarding digital privacy and rights, positioning it as a leader in this field. The government’s dedication to enhancing digital privacy and rights is indicative of its commitment to fostering a free and open society.
VPN servers in Finland: